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The use of nonhumans in research does not only violate the ethical conduct of the animal codes but contradicts the understanding of the differences between humans and nonhuman.




Evaluate the evidence from research on behavioural theories and learning.



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  • considering the theory which you have read in this article, write why you agree   with Article / 500 words

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Assignment should be written with reference to criminal, judicial psychology, but adapted to the main topic and fully answer all question in the article.

  • be sure to support any claims and/or assumptions you make using the academic literature you researched.
  • in the end of this Assignment, you must add minimum 2 question for each article and to give a chance a writer of this Article to reply.





The use of nonhumans in research does not only violate the ethical conduct of the animal codes but contradicts the understanding of the differences between humans and nonhuman. For example, the study of the mammalian brain in psychology and neuroscience differs mostly in the cortical level (Bedwell, 2016), most findings from animal research to human doubles the contradictions especially in psychology when it relates to issues such as executive functions. The question that has not been adequately addressed is to what extent is the efficacy of rodent research finding to a human reliable? Hence the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of humans and those of nonhumans share less similarity (Bedwell, 2016). Animals are not humans, and they vary in different ways. So their experiment should be wholly for animal kingdom and not for humans for instance, medications used in the treatment of brain disorders which were efficiently applied on mice (Kaufman, 2018) failed their trials on humans, depicting that there is no match for these mammals hence Guoping Feng a professor of neuroscience opined that rodents are not humans and it is not their fault.

      For sure the benefits of animal research cannot be ruled out, through animal research scientists have come up with many modern ways of handling diseases. Significant medical advances have been attributed to the result of successful animal research (Bedwell, 2016) such as the insulin for diabetics, vaccinations, and asthma inhalers. Over 25 million animals are used for experimentations, and many breakthroughs have come out of these experiments all to the glory of animal research and trials (Lombardo, 2015). Except for medical benefits, animal research and experimentations have benefited humans through behaviourism approach of Pavlov’s in classical condition (Peel, 2005) where the dog experiment revealed the stimulus-response which is being applied on human beings today.

      It will be proper to point out that the bone of contention here is not to protect animals from violation of their rights as argued by many critiques concerning cruel acts meted on animals. Animals have no rights to violate (Cohen, 1986). This work is concerned with the suitability of nonhuman research application on humans. However, that animals possess no rights does not permit humans to inflict harm on nonhumans (Cohen, 1986), animals suffer, and therefore there is no reason to make them suffer unnecessarily. 

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