We're Open

  100% Pass and No Plagiarism Guaranteed

With reference to theory and research, critically discuss the extent to which criminal profiling is effective in solving crime.

Coursework Questions
  • Critically evaluate the association between narcissism and crime. Support your arguments with reference to theory and research.

  • With reference to theory and research, critically discuss the extent to which criminal profiling is effective in solving crime.

  • Critically evaluate the implications of stalking as a form of criminal offence.  Support your arguments with reference to theory and research. 

  • Drawing on theory and research, critically discuss the extent to which the Reid technique is effective in obtaining true confessions.

Coursework question 1

Critically evaluate the association between narcissism and crime. Support your arguments with reference to theory and research.

  • See lecture in week 2 (and week 3 if you link narcissism to white-collar crime)

    • Theories

      • Narcissistic injury, rage and threatened egotism

      • Maladaptive narcissistic traits e.g., lack of empathy, exploitation, entitlement, power

  • Limitations in the field

    • Assessment – the most widely used inventory (NPI) measures grandiose narcissism

      • Or a subcomponent of the inventory (e.g., exploitation/entitlement)

    • Why is it important to measure narcissism as multidimensional construct?

      • How does vulnerable narcissism manifest itself (differently) in relation to criminal behaviour?

    • Grandiose features are more applicable in males. How does narcissism manifest itself (differently) in females, in relation to criminal behaviour?

Coursework question 2

With reference to theory and research, critically discuss the extent to which criminal profiling is effective in solving crime. 

  • See lecture in week 4

  • Theories

    • The crime scene reflects the offender’s personality; the method of the operation (M.O) remains similar; the signature will stay the same; the offender’s personality will not change

  • Methods

    • Personality/FBI – CIA; Geographical Profiling/Investigative Psychology; Crime linkage analysis

    • You can choose one method to focus on (or two?), depending on your main argument

    • These methods are underpinned by some or all of the theories outlined above

  • Limitations in the field

    • Ethical issues includes a concern for the absence of uniform standards and practices due to lack of consensus in terminology, approaches, training, and educational background

    • See lecture slides for more limitations 

Coursework question 3

Critically evaluate the implications of stalking as a form of criminal offence.  Support your arguments with reference to theory and research.

  • See lecture in week 5

  • Theories

    • Definition of stalking

    • Types of stalkers

    • Stalking as a pathology of attachment

  • Limitations in the field  

    • Factors impacting our understanding of stalking, patterns and prevalence

      • Gender differences in perceptions of stalking and victimisation

      • Ambiguity surrounding the word ‘fear’

      • Several legal definitions of stalking (difficult to generalise?)

      • Cross-cultural differences in perceptions of stalking and victimisation

      • See lecture slides for more limitations

Coursework question 4

Drawing on theory and research, critically discuss the extent to which the Reid technique is effective in obtaining true confessions.

  • See lecture in week 8

  • Theories

    • Why do people falsely confess?

      • Pressured/Coerced-Compliant’ confession is relevant to the Reid technique

    • What are the assumptions of the Reid technique?

      • Will be covered in the lecture

  • Limitations in the field

    • The Reid technique is an inherently unethical, coercive and manipulative approach

    • There is a lack of scientific evidence to support its success rate in eliciting true confessions

    • Implications of this technique can lead to wrongful convictions

General pointers

  • Please carefully read the Assessment Overview, Marking Criteria, and the example essay graded 85 on Moodle

  • Take every opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge and critical thinking – ensure the content is relevant/answers the essay question

  • Choose the limitations with most impact/implication

  • Demonstrate independent reading (beyond lecture material)

    • Some key theories (e.g, narcissistic injury by Logan) and research (gender differences in narcissism by Green et al) are expected, but do not rely entirely on lecture material

    • Use peer-reviewed sources, as opposed to anecdotal sources

  • Edit and proofread your work – avoid writing in first person, informal language/jargons

  • Make sure you have correctly cited in-text references as well as end-list references 

Structure of critical analysis

Topic sentence/Claim

  • Introduces the point you are making in the paragraph
  • One paragraph contains one point, not several

Critique

  • ‘Unpack’ the point you are making – explain and analyse
  • Critique doesn’t always mean a limitation, it can also include strengths

Elaboration/Supporting evidence

  • Use theory/research to support your critique, using examples and evidence

Implications

  • Identify the significance of the critique and link back to your main argument in the introduction
  • You can also end the paragraph with recommendations for future research or link to your next point 
Example of a main argument in the introduction 

This essay will argue that although the GLM is seemingly an effective form of treatment that increases offender motivation and focuses on helping each individual work towards a positive future, there are still some concerns regarding the model. Due to it being a fairly recent implementation, the GLM lacks empirical support and some elements of the model, such as its potential overfocus on positivity, have been questioned. In order to amend these issues, this essay recommends further research into the framework and suggests integrating the model with other treatment plans to address its shortcomings.

Suggestions for future research 

  • Further demonstrate your critical thinking by offering a solution to limitations discussed in the essay

  • You can provide suggestions for future research:

    • as a whole paragraph (example 1), at the end of a paragraph(s) (example 2), or as part of your overall conclusion to the essay (example 3)

  • Please click on the following slides where I have provided example 1, 2 and 3

Example 1

Future research should consider a dimensional approach to how personality disorders are conceived, as this may help resolve disjunctions in the literature regarding the construct of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, and constitute an important step towards a conceptual model inclusive of gender issues in these manifestations. Regardless of clinician bias, gender differences in personality disorders are reflections of actual, and parallel, differences in underlying traits (Paris, 2004). If personality disorders are eventually to be understood on a dimensional basis, this could also contribute to new advances in research and help with the integration of empirical synthesis of the differential effects that gender can have on trait expression. For instance, it has been proposed elsewhere that personality disorders with consistent findings of gender differences would be enhanced by defining sex-specific symptom expressions, and that this can aid the development of treatment interventions for both males and females to address particular deficits and needs (Schulte & Habel, 2018). A dimensional model, therefore, offers an opportunity to both reframe ‘personality disorder’ as a construct and may afford a more comprehensive understanding of gender differences in relation to narcissism. 

Example 1

  • In this example you dedicate a paragraph where you offer a new theory/approach/concept, supported by examples derived from the literature

  • This recommendation is based on previous limitation(s) made in the essay

  • Ensure to link back recommendations to your main argument 

Example 2

However, a limitation that brings into question the effectiveness of the model is that many have argued that it fails to reinforce crime prevention. The GLM has been criticised for its underestimation of individualised risk factors which are important in models such as the RNR as they help practitioners and offenders understand what factors have contributed to and may sustain offending behaviours (Ogloff & Davis, 2004; Andrews, Bonta & Wormith, 2011). Therefore, it is important that the GLM finds a healthy balance between encouraging positivity and reducing risk (Ward, Mann & Gannon, 2007) as some practitioners have reported that the GLM often focuses on promoting positivity to the detriment of reducing risk factors (Harkins et al., 2012). However, integrated models (for example, including elements of both GLM and RNR) have paid more attention to risk factors (Harkins et al., 2012) suggesting that the issue is being remedied. However, if risk factors continue to be neglected by the original model, elements of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) (which has been found to be an effective form of treatment for sex offenders; Ministry of Justice, 2010; Schmucker & Lösel, 2008; Kim, Benekos & Merlo, 2015) and RNR could be implemented as they focus on the maladaptive behaviour of the criminal ensuring that there is a fair balance between promoting positivity and risk reduction.

Example 2
  • In this example you briefly offer your recommendation in the same paragraph where you outlined a limitation and supporting evidence for your critical analysis

  • Ensure to link back recommendations to your main argument

Example 3

Overall, the results here provide novel insights into how different kinds of narcissism is associated with gender and how these factors are differentially related to partner violence perpetration. These gender differences accentuate the importance of including a multidimensional assessment of narcissism that captures both grandiosity and vulnerability, and the full scope of IPV (physical, sexual, and psychological abuse). Such an approach arguably offers the potential to more comprehensively understand and unmask the gendered manifestations of narcissism as they relate to partner violence outcomes.

Example 3
  • In this example you offer your recommendations for future research in the conclusion

  • This recommendation is based on previous limitation(s) made in the essay, where alternative models were considered and argued to be a more robust assessment (e.g., a multidimensional assessment of narcissism)

  • Ensure to link back recommendations to your main argument 

Example 3
  • In this example you offer your recommendations for future research in the conclusion

  • This recommendation is based on previous limitation(s) made in the essay, where alternative models were considered and argued to be a more robust assessment (e.g., a multidimensional assessment of narcissism)

  • Ensure to link back recommendations to your main argument 

Any questions? J
  • Happy to clarify/elaborate on any areas during lectures/seminars

  • If you have questions, please post them on the forum on Moodle or email me to post it (anonymously)

  • Remaining seminars will focus on your critical writing in groups

  • A revision lecture/Q&A session will take place in week 11


100% Plagiarism Free & Custom Written,
Tailored to your instructions
paypal checkout


International House, 12 Constance Street, London, United Kingdom,
E16 2DQ

UK Registered Company # 11483120


100% Pass Guarantee

STILL NOT CONVINCED?

We've produced some samples of what you can expect from our Academic Writing Service - these are created by our writers to show you the kind of high-quality work you'll receive. Take a look for yourself!

View Our Samples

Recent Uploads