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Critically evaluate leadership theories and assess their utility in the management of change

ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS

Assessment

Practical/Group Presentation

Assessment code:

011

Academic Year:

2021/22

Trimester:

2

Module Title:

Leadership and Change Management

Module Code:

MOD004062

Level:

6

Module Leader:

 

Weighting:

40%

Time Limit:

20 Minutes

Assessed Learning Outcomes

1. Critically evaluate leadership theories and assess their utility in the management of change

3. Evaluate potential barriers to organisational change and the effective management of the process

Assessment dates:

Please refer to the deadline on the VLE

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

  • This is a group presentation with individual elements assignment. You should bring a hard copy of the presentation with you and also upload the presentation file and any movie file on the link provided for this on VLE. Both should be uploaded just before your presentation takes place.
  • No extensions are available for this assessment.
  • Mitigation: The deadline for submission of mitigation in relation to this assignment is no later than five working days after the submission date of this work. Please contact the Director of Studies Team - [email protected] See rules 6.112 – 6.141: http://web.anglia.ac.uk/anet/academic/public/academic_regs.pdf

Please note:

  • All group members must take part – with equal emphasis placed on each presenter
  • You must provide a hard copy of your presentation slides at the start of your presentation
  • Ensure that slide 1 includes all the group members’ names and SID numbers
  • Use Harvard referencing to acknowledge the sources
  • Your final slide should provide the Reference List

Instructions

Healthcare Case Study

Professor Nkiru Nelis became the CEO of Yorkshire General Hospital in July 2017. It was a challenging time in the health care industry and particularly in the suburbs of Atlanta. The challenges were also exciting, and the leadership team was willing and able to analyse the situation and create a direction for the hospital. But where and how? The leadership team faced various challenges and were not immediately sure how they might be solved. The changes necessary to be competitive— improving facilities and technology—would involve millions of dollars in outlays. But Yorkshire General did not have millions of dollars for such investment.

Yorkshire General Hospital

Yorkshire General Hospital is a large community hospital (333 beds) located in the western suburbs of Atlanta in Polk County, Georgia. The hospital has a workforce of 1,600 employees—referred to as associates—and 500 volunteers. There are 900 members of the medical staff. Most of the physicians have their own practices and are simply qualified to practice at the hospital (a situation called residency). Only a few of the physicians are direct employees of the hospital. Many of the independent physicians have residency at other hospitals as well and will encourage their patients to go to any of the hospitals at which they have residency.

Yorkshire General Hospital is a not-for-profit organization and a member of the Lancaster Health Care System, the second largest health system in Georgia with eight hospitals and 20,000 associates. Yorkshire General has inpatient, outpatient, and emergency services in a broad spectrum of health care specialties, which  serve the surrounding communities. The main services offered by Yorkshire General are general medicine, surgery, cardiac medicine, and women’s &  neonatal care in addition to diagnostic services (e.g., lab, x-ray) across all main medical areas.

1. Critically evaluate leadership theories and assess their utility in the management of change. Lancaster Health Care System is the parent organization of Yorkshire General. Lancaster approves Yorkshire General budgets and is the primary funding source, with the Yorkshire General Foundation the other.

The Situation at Yorkshire General

Professor Nelis knew Yorkshire General was a good hospital when she became the CEO in 2017. But as she started collecting some of the data, it became clear that the hospital was not realizing the potential that she thought it had. Nelis determined the requirements of Yorkshire General stakeholders. For inpatients, outpatients, and emergency department patients, the key requirements were high-quality and safe care, friendly staff, prompt service, and the need to inform and involve the patients and their families in care decisions. Associates (the workforce) required fulfilling work, a caring patient environment, a commitment to quality, confidence in senior leaders, and to be treated with respect. Physicians required quality and consistent nursing care, patient safety, quality administration skill, and efficient operations. Other stakeholders, such as government agencies and regulatory bodies, wanted efficiency and high-quality care. The community required access to high-quality care.

As CEO Nelis entered the strategic planning process in July 2018, she concluded the following:

  • Clinical quality was generally perceived as good, but not exceptional, except for the cardiology and cardiovascular surgery department.
  • Patient satisfaction ranged from mediocre to poor with outpatient satisfaction at the 18th percentile and inpatient satisfaction at the 26th percentile compared with relevant data from surveys.
  • The level of nursing care was “uneven.” The competency and consistency of nursing care varied from days to nights, units to units, and weekdays to weekends.
  • Physician satisfaction with hospital services was mixed and physician views of the Yorkshire General leadership ranged from ambivalent to untrusting and adversarial.
  • The medical staff included mostly  highly  experienced  physicians; however, most physicians had residency at other hospitals as well. This meant that these specialists could choose to recommend that their patients go to another hospital for their inpatient or outpatient procedures. Furthermore, physicians felt undervalued by the leaders of their respective specialties.
  • Associate (workforce) satisfaction was at the 46th percentile compared with the national norms and there were numerous vacancies in several high-skilled positions.
  • Facilities and technology were perceived as being behind the competition in the region. Except for the six beds in the paediatrics unit, Yorkshire General had no private rooms in a market where private rooms were quickly becoming the standard. Radiology equipment was old, and the catheter lab equipment was “fully depreciated.”
  • Financially, the Yorkshire General net income of USD 14 million was lower than other hospitals in the market. In addition, Yorkshire General competed for limited available capital with the other 11 hospitals within the Lancaste

Health Care System. On the other hand, competitor hospitals were able to invest all their financial resources into maintaining, improving, and expanding their facilities, clinical specialties, and workforces. 1. Critically evaluate leadership theories and assess their utility in the management of change

The Challenge for Yorkshire General

The challenges faced by the Yorkshire General leadership team were simple; the solution or solutions, however, were much more difficult to map out. The Yorkshire General competition was spending on facilities and programs that Lancaster could not afford to undertake right now due to limited resources and focus on hospitals with more immediate and critical problems. Yet Yorkshire General had to find a way to stay competitive in order to survive in the long term. CEO Nelis is worried. She calls a meeting of her senior management team to discuss the way forward in the light of a seven step plan her team has prepared.

The Seven-Step Transformation Process

  1. Create a vision that will create personal responsibility and ownership.
  2. Create an environment to create an improvement focus on meeting customer needs.
  3. Create an evidenced-based mentality to help make well-reasoned changes.
  4. Improve employee understanding of what is important to physicians and make changes to meet their needs.
  5. Create a focus on processes to understand better ways of accomplishing tasks and to understand how elements in the organization relate.
  6. Improve the leadership process and how each employee is a leader.
  7. Deploy processes to create an improvement focus for all employees.

Your team have been asked by the CEO to present your advice to the senior leadership team on the challenges and best course of action to achieve a successful outcome for the issues following the Seven-Step Transformation Process above:

Group Task (40%)

Task 1: With reference to the above scenario, identify and evaluate potential leadership theories and approaches that may be utilised, and their potential impact on the changes.

Individual Task (60%)

Each member of the team to present on ONE of the following:

Task 2: Critically analyse stages of organisational lifecycle and recommend different leadership theories appropriate for managing each stage

Task 3: Assess the influence of culture on working relationships within the organisation

Task 4: Evaluate communication strategies relevant to different stages of the above change

Hospitality Case Study

This case study centres on the general manager (GM) of a small, 49-room Inn’s Restaurant located in a small seaside town not far from London. The majority of the Inn’s guests are locals and summer tourists.

The Inn’s new GM began his employment in June of the current year with a major

goal of enhancing the revenue of the Inn, which was badly needed.

The Inn hardly broke even and the CEO and stakeholders were very concerned. Hence, a new GM was hired. Unlike the previous GM, who had over 30 years of experience in hospitality management. the new GM was a hospitality college graduate.

With his fresh perspective, he saw that the restaurant was consistently successful regarding special occasion dining. However, he saw a need for development of special dining opportunities on public holidays: Bank Holidays including Christmas.

The implementation of these public holiday dining opportunities, with proper marketing, could result in additional revenue as well as generate positive publicity within the community for the restaurant.

To the new GM it seemed only fitting for the Inn’s Restaurant which was known throughout the community for special event dining. He knew that with the right advertising and employee support, these occasions could prove significant for the restaurant’s annual revenue. He was also aware that only one other local restaurant of the same calibre as the Inn’s Restaurant was not open which meant that his property would be providing a service that was rare on these occasions. The ultimate goal would be to provide a memorable special occasion dining experience in relation to the holidays, supplying the staff with extra tips and earnings, and generating more business for the restaurant, which would in turn entice repeat business and positive word-of-mouth to bring in additional customers.

The new holiday dining options would improve the restaurant’s reputation for special occasion dining and provide the community with an additional dining-out option on these holidays when many other restaurants closed down for the day.

However, there were challenges to implementation. The foremost of these were the impact on employee morale and turnover intention due to the additional working days, especially on holidays. Up until this point in the property’s history, holidays such as Mother’s Day had been important days for the restaurant, but public bank holidays had been days off for employees.

Therefore, attendance on these days would have to be made mandatory for all staff

Getting the staff to comply with the changes and get on board with the company’s goal, while keeping morale high and controlling turnover, would be the most challenging aspect of the implementation plan.

If employees were unhappy but remained at the Inn, the new GM was concerned about the possible impact on the restaurant’s quality of service and issues related to internal marketing and word-of-mouth.

In other words, would lowered morale result in deterioration in the organisation service culture? Would it impact positive behaviours such as internal marketing efforts to upsell food and beverage or promote the restaurant in the community?

Your team have been asked by the CEO to present your advice to the senior leadership team on the challenges and best course of action to achieve a successful outcome for the issues above. 1. Critically evaluate leadership theories and assess their utility in the management of change

You are required to identify the following in the presentation:

Group Task (30%)

Task 1: With reference to the above scenario, identify and evaluate potential leadership theories and approaches that may be utilised, and their potential impact on the changes.

Individual Task (60%)

Each member of the team to present on ONE of the following:

Task 2: Critically analyse stages of organisational lifecycle and recommend different leadership theories appropriate for managing each stage

Task 3: Assess the influence of culture on working relationships within the organisation

Task 4: Evaluate communication strategies relevant to different stages of the above change

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Overall Presentation Content: 0-90 Marks

Marks will be awarded for the overall content of the presentation provided. As such, it is essential that you ensure that all of your group members are presenting successfully and are fully prepared for the presentation.

Marks will be allocated on the basis:

  • The creativity of the idea
  • Whether the presentation content was convincing
  • The quality of information in the presentation
  • Whether the information shows application of analytical thought
  • Whether all essential areas were covered

Presentation Skills: 0 - 10 Marks

You will be assessed on your presentation skills. This does not include anything relating to the content that is presented. These include, but are not limited to:

  • Clarity of expression
  • Understanding of presented materials
  • Use of visual aids
  • Professionalism of your pitch

Marks will be awarded as follows:

  • A poor answer (39% and below (Fail) misses the point of the task and fails to address the requirements listed in the brief, either entirely or to a significant degree. Expression is simplistic and vague. The answer is unstructured and also fail to use any academic support, with no citations or reference list in evidence. Answer demonstrates no analysis question and is simply a templated solution taken from other sources. Answer lacks significant originality
  • A basic answer (40 49%) addresses some of the issues and demonstrate limited knowledge of appropriate theory, but at a superficial level. It demonstrates difficulties with structure and contains some gaps in understanding. Expression lacks maturity and use of professional terminology. The material is not arranged in a user friendly, logical format. The delivery system of the programme is be unclear and there are minor inaccuracies in any financial information
  • A satisfactory answer (50-59%) addresses a large amount of the questions and demonstrate a sound, basic knowledge of theory, but with some minor omissions in content and minor inaccuracies in expression. Structure is largely logical. There is an attempt to analyse and evidence that the solution has been tailored to a fair degree. Use of theory and evidence is reasonably good but with room left to strengthen the credibility.
  • A good answer (60-69%) adopts a logical structure and address almost all of the questions using virtually all appropriate theory that relates. Knowledge appears be sound. The report is supported by a good variety of robust academic and industry sources. Omissions and inaccuracies are minor. 1. Critically evaluate leadership theories and assess their utility in the management of change. Analysis and evaluation is done well, but lacks some depth, detail and sophistication.
  • An excellent/outstanding answer (70%+) identifies all the key issues within the question and make extensive use of appropriate theory in providing a credible solution. Structures is logical and the proposal easy to follow and digest. Relevant theory and industry practice is used to produce well-supported recommendations. Grammar and academic skills is of a high standard, and analysis and evaluation is consistently delivered throughout, with sophisticated use of materials. An extensive range of sources have been uses in a highly sophisticated manner.
  • An exceptional answer (80%+) Faultless work in terms of presentation and academic skills, and the overall credibility of the proposal is extremely high, to the extent that it might be used as a template for a future industry document. The level of detail included in the plans and schematics is exceptional without being overcrowded or confusing.

The work will be assessed in an integrative manner as indicated in the marking rubric, Table 1, that is consistent with Anglia Ruskin University generic assessment criteria and marking standards: Level 6 reproduced in Table 2


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