We're Open

0% Plagiarism Guaranteed & Custom Written

What is the meaning of work in a societal context?

Management and Organizational Behavior

Learning Objectives

What is the meaning of work in a societal context?

How do you recognize and meet the challenges facing managers in the new millennium?

What is expected of a manager?

What is the role of the behavioral sciences in management and organizations?

Organizational Behavior by OpenStax, 2019

2

The four leaning objectives for this chapter are…

What is the meaning of work in a societal context? (that is, define work, its purpose, and challenge)

How do you recognize and meet the challenges facing managers in the new millennium? (that is, what has changed in the world of work)

What is expected of a manager? (that is define management, management levels, managerial skills, and managerial responsibilities); and

What is the role of the behavioral sciences in management and organizations? (that is, defining organizational behavior, units of analysis, and contributing disciplines)

2

Contents

The Nature of Work

The Changing Workplace

The Nature of Management

A Model of Organizational Behavior and Management

Organizational Behavior by OpenStax, 2019

3

The chapter is organized into four sections that align with the learning objectives…

The Nature of Work

The Changing Workplace

The Nature of Management; and

A Model of Organizational Behavior and Management

…we will also touch on the TedTalk, “Profit’s not always the point’, by Harish Manwani

3

The Nature of Work

Organizational Behavior

Organizational Behavior by OpenStax, 2019

4

The Nature of Work considers what is work, its purpose, and a challenge for managers

4

Functions of Work

Work

An activity that produces something of value for other people

Serves an economic function

Serves social functions

Provides a source of social status

Source of identity, self-esteem, and (for some) a means for self actualization

One of the challenges of management is to discover ways of transforming necessary yet distasteful jobs into more meaningful situations that are more satisfying and rewarding for individuals and that still contribute to organizational productivity and effectiveness.

5

Organizational Behavior by OpenStax, 2019

Work is defined as an activity that produces something of value for other people, and serves or provides…

An economic function (for example, money)

A social function (for example, friendship)

Is a source of social status (for example, hierarchy); and

Is a source of identity (for example, sense of autonomy, mastery, and purpose)

One challenge for managers is to find ways to transform tasks that, let’s be honest, may not be that interesting, but are necessary for the organization, into more meaningful situations.

Let’s consider the functions of work, using my prior role as a Dean as an example:

As the Dean, I had a lucrative salary, great benefits, and access to a multi-million dollar department budget.

I had the opportunity to connect with faculty and staff across divisions and departments, with a core group of like-minded colleagues to work with and sometimes socialize with (such as my monthly Dean’s Happy Hour at a regional craft brewery)

It was a great source of status, as I was part of the academic affairs leadership team, and was able to implement a series of initiatives, based on my role as Dean (such as the department of education audit, assigned professional advisors, and a revised early start program).

I found the work to be challenging, but rewarding, being able to impact student success at the university level, and having, for the most part, free reign to focus on projects that I felt aligned with our mission and my own values.

Overall, it provided a economic value, social connection, high profile status and personal identity.

5

The Changing Workplace

Organizational Behavior

Organizational Behavior by OpenStax, 2019

6

The Changing Workplace focuses on various challenges that have emerged at work in our new millennium

6

Workplace Challenges

The Challenge of International Competition

The Challenge of New Technologies

The Challenge of Increased Quality

The Challenge of Employee Motivation and Commitment

The Challenge of Managing a Diverse Workforce

The Challenge of Ethical Behavior

Organizational Behavior by OpenStax, 2019

7

Some of the workplace challenges in the new millennium include…

Globalization (now concerned about competitors in parts of the world that you may not have heard of, as well as potential customers you may not have even realized existed)

Technology (from voice mail, to email, to social media)

Quality (with few product offerings, barriers to change, and limited information; we now have multiple options, it is easy to change vendors, and ratings such as Yelp and Rate my professor provide indicators of quality)

Psychological contract (going from one career, to multiple jobs, employers, and industries)

Diversity (from homogeneous to heterogeneous work organizations)

Ethics (the importance of ethics, or at least the public portrayal of ethical principles in business, such as sustainability, have become more prominent)

Let’s consider the changes that occurred when I formally entered the workforce, back in the 1990s to today…

In terms of competition, we largely focused on regional firms and local customers

In terms of technology, the fax was fairly new, voice-mail had just started, and if you could turn a computer off and on, you worked in IT

For quality, many firms focused more on marginal service to customers, with little attention to providing value-added services

For commitment, the world of work was changing, from working with one company/career in your lifetime, to often changing jobs, firms and industries. In fact, back then, we looked for stability when we hired, but now, if you stay at a job for more than 3-5 years that can be seen as a sign of being ineffective

For diversity, most organizations were very homogenous, with fields and firms, generally dominated by one gender and one ethnic identity

For ethics, before the advent of social media, it was easier for firms to get away with wrongdoing without series consequences, being more of a cost benefit analysis and a buyer beware attitude.

7

The Nature of Management

Organizational Behavior

Organizational Behavior by OpenStax, 2019

8

The Nature of Management defines management, management levels, managerial skills, and managerial responsibilities

8

Management

Management:

The process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the activities of employees in combination with other resources to accomplish organizational objectives

Management by Level:

Executives

Middle management

First-line management

Managerial Skills:

Technical skills

Human relations skills

Conceptual skills

Managerial Responsibilities:

Long-range planning

Controlling

Environmental scanning

Supervision

Coordinating

Customer relations and marketing

Community relations

Internal consulting

Monitoring products and services

Organizational Behavior by OpenStax, 2019

9

Management is the process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the activities of employees

There are three broad levels of management, generally categorized as First-line (lead or supervisor), Middle (more traditional manager or director titles) and Executive (Presidents and Vice Presidents) levels of management.

There are three general skill categories employees use, which are Technical (think of your major/concentration, these are the knowledge and skills associated with your disciplines, such as Human Resources, Accounting, Information Systems & Technology, Health Care Management, etc.), Human relations (these are social & emotional intelligence to lead and communicate with others), and Conceptual (that is, the ability to organize, strategize, and analyze information). To secure an entry-level position, you often leverage your technical skills, but as you move into front-line and middle management, you will rely more on your human relations skills, and finally, to reach the executive level you will need to leverage your conceptual skills.

In terms of responsibilities, managers generally focus on…

Long range planning or strategic planning (where are you going, and how you are getting there)

Controlling or evaluating resource deployment (both human and financial capitol)

Environmental scanning to notice changes in the marketplace

Supervision or overseeing the work of others

Coordinating or aligning the work between employees and teams

Customer relations and marketing of products and services

Community relations and engagement

Internal consulting, that is, being attuned to changes in the internal environment; and

Monitoring products and services for quality control, customer value, and profitability


100% Plagiarism Free & Custom Written,
Tailored to your instructions


International House, 12 Constance Street, London, United Kingdom,
E16 2DQ

UK Registered Company # 11483120


100% Pass Guarantee

STILL NOT CONVINCED?

We've produced some samples of what you can expect from our Academic Writing Service - these are created by our writers to show you the kind of high-quality work you'll receive. Take a look for yourself!

View Our Samples

corona virus stop
FLAT 25% OFF ON EVERY ORDER.Use "FLAT25" as your promo code during checkout