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LO2. Evaluate the design and performance of gas turbine engines

ME652 Aerospace Propulsion Systems and Avionics

Assessment Details and Brief

Module Code:

ME652

Module Title:

Aerospace Propulsion Systems and Avionics

Author(s)/marker(s) of assessment:

 

Assessment number:

1

Assessment title:

ME652 Report

Percentage contribution to module mark:

40%

Weighting of components within this assessment:

Lab1 = 50% of the coursework mark

Lab2 = 50% of the coursework mark

Module learning outcome(s) assessed:

LO2. Evaluate the design and performance of gas turbine engines (Lab2).

LO4. Use aircraft avionics in practical applications (Lab1).

The assessment is marked anonymously

☐  Yes

☒  No

Date of issue:

 

Deadline for submission:

 

Method of submission:

e-submission via Turnitin

Date feedback will be provided:

14th January 2022, approximately 20 working days after the submission deadline

TEAMS information

Teams group code e9qqass
Link to the Teams group.

Link to the Lab1 Support Avionics channel.

Link to the Lab2 Support for Aerospace Propulsion Systems channel.

Assessment brief

 More details of the assignment are given later in this document.
This is a single report. The report is individual to each student.
There are two laboratory activities for this report, namely Lab1 and Lab2
Dr  S Gillis responsible for Lab1 whilst Dr Nicolas  is responsible for Lab2

The report should be up to a maximum of 21 pages in length
comprising of the following: Title page, 10 pages for Lab1 and 10 pages for Lab2.
Note - the page count DOES NOT INCLUDE the references or the APPENDIX).  
It should be concise and not long-winded.  It should be in your own words.

The following should be the absolute maximum number of pages for each part of the report.

  1. 1 page Title page with the links for the Panopto recordings on this page.
  1. 10 pages Lab1 as described in the documentation
  2. 10 pages Lab2 as described in the documentation
  3. One single list of references for both Labs.  This is NOT part of the page count.
  4. There is no need for an appendix, as they will NOT normally contribute towards the marks, unless it is there to show the background behind what was written previously for Lab1 and Lab2.

Lab1 Avionics - NAVIGATION
This involves researching ground based radio and navigation techniques, together with designing, carrying out and critically evaluating simulated flights to conduct avionics navigational instrument testing.  Students will also research into the way navigation instruments use radio frequency signals to allow for effective navigation to take place.

Lab2 GAS TURBINE

This involves processing and plotting measured data and relating it to the ideal cycle operation as studied in the module lecture sessions. A detailed schematic of the test rig will be required, and a description of the operating procedure used, with a focus on data analysis quality and relation to theoretical concepts.

Additional Information
The assessment will be based on a technical report structured around the critical evaluation of the radio navigation and navigation techniques used (Lab1) and the plotting and analysis of gas-turbine data, drawing on personal practical experience acquired through the activities (Lab2) together with personal research and theoretical knowledge from the lectures provided in this module. Further details regarding the assessment together with the marking criteria are provided towards the end of this brief.

An indicative schedule of lab sessions will be provided at the start of the semester. The lab sessions may include a demonstration from the instructor at the start of the session, the remaining time being spent at progressing with the research and project tasks as shown in the schedule under guided study mode. Students should come prepared to each session to maximise their learning and opportunities to ask questions during the guided study times. 

More support as to what is required for the report will be provided in the remote laboratory support sessions held over five weeks as per the module schedule, which is why it is so important to attend all classes using MS Teams. 

Students are encouraged to work in groups so that they can support each other in their learning using MS Teams. 
However their submitted assessment must be an individually written report that is unique.

Assessment marking criteria/rubric

The marking criteria and rubric is given in page 9 of this document.

The schedule for the lab support is given in the last page (Page 10) of this document.

1. A copy of your coursework submission may be made as part of the University  School of Computing, Engineering & Mathematics procedures which aim to monitor and improve quality of teaching.  You should refer to your student handbook for details.

2.  All work submitted must be your own (or your team’s for an assignment which has been specified as a group submission) and all sources which do not fall into that category must be correctly attributed. The markers may submit the whole set of submissions to the JISC Plagiarism Detection Service

ME652 Assessment deliverables 

ME652 Aerospace Propulsion Systems and Avionics

Submission of the work for all deliverables in this document should be in the form of a single report to be submitted in MyStudies (studentcentral) as a Turnitin assignment by the deadline indicated in the cover page of the assignment documentation.

The student should ensure that they have included a cover sheet with their document, giving their name, student ID, Title of the assignment, date of submission, module code and title as well as the title of the assignment. 
This cover sheet will also include links to the video recordings with a clearly audible commentary of what the student is doing in their flight for Lab1.

The material to be submitted in the single report is listed below:

LAB Report

The report will be limited to the number of pages indicated in the previous page and repeated below. Please refer to the Marking criteria and the sections for Lab1 and Lab2 for details of the breakdown of the marks.  Please note that it is EXPECTED that references should be listed and cited throughout. They will be an implicit part in the marking criteria (i.e. not mentioned explicitly but required for each part).  It is expected that students should be citing reputable sources that includes academic sources.

  • (one page) Cover page -  this is the title page with the student’s Name and ID, Module details, Details of their course, Links to the video recordings for Lab1.
  • (10 pages) Lab1 Avionics
    This part is to be presented in the given headings.

Avionics Introduction

Lab1.1 Autopilot control and justification (Non-GPS)

Lab1.2 Testing of VOR and ADF/NDB instruments (Non-GPS)

This part contains the completed flight testing documentation and justification/discussion commentary for testing the functionality of the VOR and ADF/NDB equipment in a small aircraft such as the Cessna 172SP as described in the notes for (Lab1.1) available in MyStudies (studentcentral).  .

Lab1.3 Research into the requirements for radio communications as used by the Navigation instruments.

This part contains a critical account of the research into the requirements for radio communications as used by the Navigation instruments on an aircraft. 

Avionics Discussion

  • (10 pages) Lab2: Gas Turbine Engine Testing and Data Analysis

Section containing: test procedure used; a detailed schematic of test rig, reflecting the hardware arrangements, instrumentation, and operating cycle; tabulated data; performance plots; a brief discussion of results (as described in the notes for Lab2).
These are to be presented in the given headings.

Gas Turbines Introduction

Description of Experiment and Test Rig Schematic

Tabulation of Measured Data

Analysis – Data plots

Analysis – Discussion

  • (no page count) References for both Lab1 and Lab2

  • (no page count) Appendix if needed. (not normally marked)

Lab1 Avionics and Navigation
(Sections Lab1.1, Lab1.2 and Lab1.3)

Introduction

These labs involves flying short flights in a Cessna 172SP in the region of Seattle Tacoma International Airport (or any other suitable airport) in order to carry out navigational instrument testing.  Equipment used in IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) will be evaluated.

The following are more details of the three activities for Lab1
Part of the assessment for each part involves the student demonstrating their flight to the tutor using screen recording software using Panopto

It is essential that the student’s voice be clearly audible explaining the different parts of the videocast

Publish the link for each video recording in the COVER page of the submission in order to gain the appropriate credit.

Lab1.1 AUTOPILOT

The student will be using a small aircraft, such as the Cessna 172SP for this activity.

Detailed instructions are given in the support documentation in MyStudies (studentcentral).

The student is required to show evidence in the report as to how the student have configured their flight in autopilot mode.  This will include a short video recording of the screen and the student speaking as to how the activity was carried out, indicating as well as to what instruments were used.

The report should contain the flight path screenshots taken on the simulator (map of path), together with a short commentary on the flights and flight plan design, and the theory behind the operation of the instruments used

Publish the link to the uploaded video recording of the activity in the cover sheet of the document.

Lab1.2 VOR and ADF/NDB

The student will be using a small aircraft, such as the Cessna 172SP for this activity.

The student take off from a given airport such as KSEA (Seattle Tacoma International Airport) and climb to 5000 ft and fly to a specified destination of their choice.

Students should demonstrate the use of VOR and ADF/NDB by providing evidence such as screenshots taken on the simulator (map of path), together with a short commentary on the theory of operation of the instrumentation used.  The student should manually draw the plotting lines from the VORs and the NDB to help explain how they determine their location.  This can be done on the screenshot of what they see in XPlane. This contains the flight records screenshots LO2. Evaluate the design and performance of gas turbine engines

Publish the link to the uploaded video recording of the activity in the cover sheet of the document.

Lab1.3 Research into the requirements for radio communications as used by the Navigation instruments

Students should research into the radio frequency requirements of the instrumentation used in Lab1.1 and Lab1.2 above for the on-board transceivers on the aircraft as well as that on the ground. 

This should be limited only to what is being used in Lab1.1 and Lab1.2.

This should include the rationale for the allocation of the frequencies of the signals used, the modulation techniques used and an indication of the level of the power of the signals transmitted and received by the aircraft as well as the transceivers on the ground level.

More details about what is required can be found in the marking criteria for Lab1.3.

More support as to what is required for the report will be provided in the remote laboratory support sessions, which is why it is so important to attend all classes using MS Teams.

Report Guidelines for this section

ME652 Aerospace Propulsion Systems and Avionics

Use the following format for the Lab1 part of the final report.  Please see the section on the citing and list of references later in this document.  This is an important consideration for marking the work presented in the report.  Please also note that marks will be lost if there is no or poor evidence given in the form of a link to a screen recording (with the voice of the student explaining what can be seen on the screen) of the activity.

  This section should have a maximum of 10 pages including diagrams.

Lab1 Avionics Introduction (3% of the whole report)

An overview description of all three activities for Lab1. (approximately 100 words).

Lab1.1 (10% of the whole report)

Identify the main outcomes of this activity and what was learnt.  Relate to the evidence collected. 

See the description given in the previous page for more details. 

The link of the video recording for this part should be published in the COVER PAGE of the document for the whole assignment. 

The video recording demonstrates that it is the students own work. 

Please note that the content of the video recording is NOT assessed, only the technical content in the report is assessed.

Lab1.2 (15% of the whole report)

Identify the main outcomes of this activity and what was learnt. 

Relate to the evidence collected. 

The tutor will be looking for clear evidence of the student’s understanding of the use of VOR and ADF/NDB. 

See the description given in the previous page for more details. 

The link of the video recording for this part should be published in the COVER PAGE of the document for the whole assignment. 

The video recording demonstrates that it is the students own work. 

Please note that the content of the video recording is NOT assessed, only the technical content in the report is assessed.

Lab1.3 (15% of the whole report)

Identify the main outcomes of this activity and what was learnt. 

Relate to the evidence collected.

See the description given in the previous page for more details. 

Lab1 Avionics Discussion (7% of the whole report)

Provide a brief discussion of the activities for ONLY Lab1, relating them to the study of Avionics for this module. 

The student should attempt to link the findings from each activity to demonstrate their learning in this part of the coursework.

The tutor will be looking for evidence of critical reflection relating to Avionics in the use of the different instruments for flying and navigation

Using the Flight Simulator

The flights will be carried out using specialist software X-plane installed on the workstations in rooms C419 and C410. 

From October 2021, it is expected that students should also download a demo version of the software from X-plane for use on their own computers.  The demo version has a limited flying time whilst the software in the University of Brighton has an unlimited flying time.

This is available as a free download for the Windows and Mac operating systems.
Additional support for using the software and for the assignments will be given by the tutor during the scheduled remote laboratory sessions as well as the pre-recorded videocasts.

The student should ensure that they are familiar with the use of  X-plane before starting the assignment. Further advice and information can be obtained from the lecture notes, tutors and the MyStudies Portal.

Flight description

This activity consists in carrying out short idealised flights in the region of a given airport, such as the Seattle Tacoma International Airport (KSEA), via triangulation points for IFR using VOR/NDB.  The student can of course choose an alternative airport if they wish.

Airspace, airport procedures and clearances are to be ignored in this flight.   All flights take place in daytime and clear weather, except where indicated for particular scenarios for wind conditions.

Preparation for flights

Please follow the start-up instructions as directed by your tutor and in the ME652 MyStudies (studentcentral) area.  The student will need to pre-set the NAV1 radio module to the various frequencies in the area. For example the student may need to set the landing ILS frequency at the airport and enable by pressing the ←→ STBY button.  Refer to the instruments information manual in MyStudies (studentcentral) and in x-plane documentation for more information on using the radio stack. Approach and landing at the airport can take place on any runway with an ILS approach.  The frequency of the beacons at different airports is different.  The student will need to set the NAV1 radio to an appropriate frequency (ideally before commencing their flight) in order to receive the navigation data.

Flight Testing: IFR Navigation

This part will focus on the design of flight segments exploring non-GPS based navigation techniques such as VOR/NBD/DME to locate the position of the aircraft.

The student will then execute their equipment testing on the flight simulator software and produce a reflective written report on ground based navigation techniques and equipment operation.

There are several aspects to note for this activity and they are as follows.

1) Investigate the practical implementation and technical theory behind the ground based navigation techniques which might come into play when carrying out the proposed flight.

2) Devise accurate flight test scenarios.

3) Perform the navigation on the flight simulator workstations according to the student flight test scenario.

4) Critically evaluate and discuss as a deliverable for the final report the theory and practical ground based navigation techniques and systems in relation to this flight.

Recording data

The student should ensure that they have collected their flight data. 

Appropriate screenshots should be included in their submitted report as part of the assessment.

Details of capturing data are included in the manual on MyStudies (studentcentral).

The local map window shows path maps and altitude plot to see the route taken. 

When the full actual trajectory is displayed, take a screen shot and save the map and altitude plot.

Preparatory work

Please refer to the support documents available in the MyStudies (studentcentral) area for ME652 in the Assessment and Marks area.

Lab2 Propulsion System Testing

GAS TURBINE Engine Testing and Data Analysis

Introduction

The student has been learning about aero gas turbine engine hardware design and thermodynamic cycles as part of this module.

The student is now asked to analyse tests using a high-speed gas turbine engine test rig. For the academic year 2021-22 the tests will have been carried out and recorded remotely by an operator and the student will be provided with a recording of a typical test process and a set of pre-recorded data to work with. If the logistics and COVID-19 restrictions allow, the student will be offered to also experience the operation of the gas-turbine in person (tbc). The student will use the data obtained to calculate a range of performance parameters, and then submit a report describing their findings. LO2. Evaluate the design and performance of gas turbine engines

Please see a separate lab sheet for the suggested calculation method and the test video and datasets provided in MyStudies (studentcentral).

Aims

  1. Gain experience with operating high speed turbomachinery test rigs.
  2. Apply thermodynamic process and isentropic relationships to evaluate operating performance of a gas turbine test rig.
  3. Develop the ability to represent real-world propulsion system hardware in the form of detailed and fully annotated schematic diagrams.

Engine Tests

To investigate the effect rotational speed, fuel flow and power generation, in terms of mechanical, thermal, and overall process efficiency, it is necessary to obtain data over a wide sector of the operating range of the test rig. Proposed test points are given in Table 2.1 below. For each setpoint value of N1, the value of N2 will be varied on three distinct set-points, hence a test matrix of 18 distinct test points.

                Table 2.1 Test Rig Operating Conditions ME652 Aerospace Propulsion Systems and Avionics

Test variable #1:

N, Turbine 1, rev/min x 1000

54

58

62

66

70

74

Test variable #2:

N, Turbine 2, rev/min x 1000

13

13

13

13

13

13

23

23

23

23

23

23

38

38

38

38

38

38

Experimental Procedure

The following experimental procedure is proposed:

  1. Watch the introductory and experiment video describing the equipment and test process.
  2. Sketch a simple schematic of the test rig (use test rig control panel as a guide).
  3. Download your designated data set (group data sets instructions provided in MyStudies) and check contents and units. Convert the data to SI units as necessary.
  4. Familiarise yourself with the suggested calculation method (sheet on student central).
  5. Build calculation spreadsheet and produce relevant plots for your data analysis.
  6. Write analysis commentary and report (details and advice in section below).
  7. Submit well in advance of deadline!!


Report Guidelines for this section

Use the following format for the Lab2 part of the final report. 
This section should have a maximum of 10 pages including diagrams.

Gas Turbines Introduction (5%)

Provide an overview description of gas turbine engines; hardware, fundamentals of operation, and potential applications.

Description of Experiment and Test Rig Schematic (5%)

Provide a description of the tests procedure used.
Please include a neat, detailed and fully annotated schematic of the test rig (drawn by the student).

Tabulation of Measured Data (10%)

The raw data provided should be collected, converted in to SI units, and presented in a single, clear table. The student will need use the raw data from each group, and use the equations in the separate lab sheet appendix provided, in order to calculate the performance of the test rig over the entire test matrix used for the lab sessions, in terms of the parameters referred to in items 1 to 6 below. LO2. Evaluate the design and performance of gas turbine engines
Please also provide details and explanations about the calculations and conversions used for this part of the report.

Analysis – Data plots (10%)

Plot the previously calculated parameters listed in (1) to (6) below, by using N1 values on the X axis of the plot and N2 values as data series.

  1. Mass air flow
  2. Compressor work and isentropic efficiency
  3. Combustor efficiency
  4. Turbine 1 isentropic efficiency
  5. Work done by the gas generator unit
  6. Mechanical efficiency of the gas generator unit

Analysis – Discussion (20%)

Provide a brief discussion of the results on each individual plot, then provide an overall analysis discussion on the performance of the gas turbine and justify using the gas turbine operation theory examined during the module, with support from relevant publications/bibliography.

Citing and listing of references

There should only be ONE page for the references that have been cited for both Labs. 

There is no page count for the references. 

Place this at the end of the document and before the appendix. 

The following are useful resources to help you learn how to cite and list references.

From Imperial College, Harvard (link, pdf) (author, date)
or the Vancouver (link, pdf) (using numbers).

The   marking criteria for the report (including the weightings) is given in the following page.

This may be tweaked to reflect any changes in circumstances in the first term, so please do use the latest version that will be available on studentcentral (MyStudies).

Please note that it is expected for students to cite and list references from reputable sources that should include academic sources too.  Students who do not cite or list references properly will lose marks in each of the given row in the marking criteria.  It is not good enough just to use sites from manufacturers, casual sites/blogs or Wikipedia, they should be reputable trusted sources. LO2. Evaluate the design and performance of gas turbine engines

Overall Marking Scheme (Please check MyStudies (studentcentral) for the latest version) –dated 14 October 2021


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