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First assess the extent to which the chosen industry can be characterised as: (a) ‘globalised’ or ‘regionalised’ (as per Rugman) Then, explore and analyse the underlying factors and forces behind the observed patterns

Assessment Package

Task Brief 

Module Title:

Principles of International Business

Assessment Title:






Submission Date:







Deadline and submission requirements

  • The hand-in deadline for the individual assignment is 25th November 2021

Key requirements and task briefing information

Choose one global industry from those covered in Global Shift. 

  1. First assess the extent to which the chosen industry can be characterised as: (a) ‘globalised’ or ‘regionalised’ (as per Rugman) Then, explore and analyse the underlying factors and forces behind the observed patterns

Note that all three assignment questions require you to explore how a key global industry has been affected one or more of the core module topics.

As some of the chapters in Global Shift are relatively broad in scope, it may be advisable to narrow the scope of the industry you are investigating; if you do so, this should be clearly explained in the introduction of your assignment.


% weighting

of overall

module mark

Duration of task/

word count




Individual task

pass mark


IF OVER 60%**

Individual Assignment


Max. 4,000




To succeed in this assignment task, you will have to:

Display a good grasp of the question requirements, clearly direct the material in your answer towards the question and answer all aspects of the question.

Undertake detailed research and investigation on the chosen industry, using reputable sources, to enable you to identify and analyse the relevant features and patterns

Demonstrate a good grasp of relevant concepts from the academic literature and utilise these concepts effectively during your assignment (e.g. to provide analytical insights).

Present an assignment with a clear and logical of structure that is written coherently and persuasively in good academic English.

Achieve a high standard of presentation and follow SHU referencing conventions.

You are strongly advised to carefully consult the assessment criteria grid for further guidance on expectations, before commencing work on your assignment!

You should also consult and adhere to the ‘style guidelines’ listed below

Style guidelines

  • Tutors wish to focus their attention on the content of your assignment, rather than its physical appearance. Therefore, all assignments are expected to conform to the following guidelines.
  • Marks will be deducted for poor presentation, so please aim for a professional standard.
  • Use double line spacing and leave a margin of at least 30mm on all sides. This will make it easier for your tutor to read/mark the work and to annotate comments as they read.
  • Use a plain, readable font (such as Arial, Calibri or Verdana) with a minimum font size of 11pt.
  • Include a title page which clearly states your full name, student number and the full and exact title of the question you have answered. Choose one global industry from those covered in Global Shift. First assess the extent to which the chosen industry can be characterised as: (a) ‘globalised’ or ‘regionalised’ (as per Rugman) Then, explore and analyse the underlying factors and forces behind the observed patterns
  • You should also clearly indicate an exact word count on your title page.
  • Include page numbers.
  • Use numbered headings and sub-headings throughout to clarify the structure of your assignment and help guide the reader.
  • Include an introduction that clearly explains your approach to the question and previews
  • The key themes to be covered and explains the structure of your answer.
  • Also include a conclusion which briefly summarises your key arguments and conclusions in relation to the key question requirements,
  • Write in paragraphs and use clear, concise sentences with plain English wherever possible. Leave a line break between each paragraph. Long, overly complex sentences, containing multiple phrases, should be avoided. Each paragraph should focus on one key theme or argument only. As a rule of thumb, a paragraph should not normally extend beyond 10 lines and/or 4 or 5 sentences. Keep ‘jargon’ to a minimum and define any key academic terms.
  • Follow the APA referencing style. Use correct and appropriate in-text citations to acknowledge the source of all information and ideas and include a single, integrated reference list at the end of your assignment (in A-to-Z order by author surname). If you do not understand the conventions, consult an online referencing guide which you will find under ‘Support Resources on the PIB blackboard site.

You are strongly encouraged to use tables and figures with supporting information and other exhibits but these should be presented professionally and referred to in the text of your answer. Figures and tables should be numbered consecutively (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc), given a meaningful title and the source should be clearly indicated

The module assessment package consists of one task:

An individual assignment – submitted at the end of the module in week 21

Word Length and Penalty

The report should be 4,000 maximum words in length. This word limit relates to the word count given by the word counters in Microsoft Word and should be included at the end of the documentWork that is >10% over the word limit will be penalised by a reduction of 10 marks from the mark you would have been awarded. Note that all text apart from the list of items below is included in the word count.

a) appendices should not be included in word count.

b) tables should not be included in word count if these are used to present quantitative data but should be included if they are constructed using words.

c) the bibliography should not be included in the word count.

d) abstracts and executive summaries should be included in the word count.

To pass the module, students must attain a weighted average mark of at least 60%. Students who do not achieve this standard will be ‘referred’ and required to undertake a re-assessment task

Module Aim

The key aims of this module are to introduce students to the fundamental elements of international business, especially in the context of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and foreign direct investment (FDI). It also aims to encourage students to critically evaluate the role of globalisation as well as the ever-increasing impact of global business environment on FDI and international trade. This is an introductory, ‘core’ module that sets the context, and provides an important foundation, for many of the other related modules on the course.

Module Learning Outcome

At the end of the module, students should:

  • Understand and be able to confidently discuss aspects of the globalisation process and recognise its impact on the global economy and business environment.
  • Be aware of key patterns and dynamic trends in the spatial organisation of economic activity within in the global economy and be able to discuss them using various academic concepts.
  • Be familiar with a variety of economic systems in different parts of the world and appreciate various ways in which the nation-state remains a significant force within the globalising economy - and be aware of how these realities might affect firms operating internationally.
  • Be able to investigate, analyse and evaluate opportunities and threats in the global business environment

Schedule of Study

Lecture number

Lecture topics

Seminar content
and student activities


Introduction to module, MNEs, FDI and IB theory

Introduction to the Module & PESTEL framework


Theme I - Globalisation and the Global Economy: Globalisation (and Regionalisation) Processes

Globalisation and Regionalisation


Theme I - Globalisation and the Global Economy: Introduction to Theories on International Business

Triad dominance v/s multipolarity


Theme I - Globalisation and the Global Economy: Emerging Market Economies

IB theory (to be led by Seminar Group 1)


Theme II – Countries in a Globalising Economy: The Nation-State in the Global Economy

Emerging Markets research task and in-class group activity (all groups)


No lecture this week

No seminar this week


Theme II - Countries in a Globalising Economy: Economic Systems and Varieties of Capitalism

The Nation-State
(seminar led by Group 2)


Theme III - Internal Governance and External Networks:  FDI and foreign market entry modes

Varieties of Capitalism
(seminar led by Group 3)


Theme III - Internal Governance and External Networks: Global Production networks

FDI & foreign market entry modes/ Q&A on assessment)


Theme III - Internal Governance and External Networks: Localised Industry Clusters

Global Production Networks
(seminar led by Group 4)


Theme IV - Regional Economic Integration: EU & Asia Pacific Region

A    Regional Economic Integration: EU & Asia Pacific Region and Assignment Workshop

Reading List


This is a diverse course and students are expected to read from a variety of different academic sources. However, the textbook that provides the best coverage of module topics, along with a useful set of global industry case studies, is:

Dicken, Peter (2015) Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy, 7th edition. Sage Publishing.

Two textbooks, which include multiple chapters relevant to the module topics, are:

Cavusgil, S. T, Knight, G. and Riesenberger, J R. (2020) International Business: The New Realities (5th edition). Pearson

Rugman, A M. and Collinson, S (2012) International Business (6th edition). FT Pearson



Morrison, J (2017) the Global Business Environment: Challenges and Responsibilities. Palgrave

Cavusgil, S. T., et al. (2020) Ch.1 ‘What is international business?’ in International Business: The New Realities (5th edition). Pearson


Cavusgil, S. T., et al. (2020) Ch.2 ‘Globalization of Markets and the Internationalization of the Firm’, in International Business: The New Realities (5th edition). Pearson

Subramanian, A & Kessler, M (2013) The Hyperglobalization of Trade and Its Future. Working Paper No. 3, The Global Citizen Foundation, http://www.gcf.ch/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/GCF_Subramanian-working-paper-3_-6.17.13.pdf

Dunning, J. H., Fujita, M & Yakova, N (2007) Some Macro-Data on the Regionalisation/ Globalisation Debate: A Comment on the Rugman/Verbeke Analysis, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 38, No. 1, 177-199 Choose one global industry from those covered in Global Shift. First assess the extent to which the chosen industry can be characterised as: (a) ‘globalised’ or ‘regionalised’ (as per Rugman) Then, explore and analyse the underlying factors and forces behind the observed patterns

Osegowitsch, T & Sammartino, A (2008) Reassessing (home-) regionalization. Journal of International Business Studies 39: 184-196 Understand and be able to confidently discuss aspects of the globalisation process and recognise its impact on the global economy and business environment.

Rugman, A. M & Verbeke, A (2004) A perspective on regional and global strategies of multinational enterprises, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 35(1), 3-19

Held, D & McGrew, A (2001) ‘Globalization’, in The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2nd ed,), pp.324-7 [available at: http://www.polity.co.uk/global/globalization-oxford.asp]

Hirst, P & Thompson, G (2003) The Limits to Economic Globalization, in David Held and Anthony McGrew (Eds) The Global Transformations Reader: An Introduction to the Globalization Debate (2nd Edition), p.335-348. [available to download at: http://www.polity.co.uk/global/pdf/GTReader2eHirstThompson.pdf]


Li, L., Dunford, M & Yeung, G (2012) International trade and industrial dynamics: Geographical and structural dimensions of Chinese and Sino-EU merchandise trade, Applied Geography, Vol. 32, No. 1, 130-142

Leamer, E (2007) Flat world, a level playing field, a small world after all, or none of the above? A review of Thomas L. Friedman`s "The World is Flat", Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 45(1), 83-126

Florida, R (2005) ‘The World is Spiky’, The Atlantic Monthly, October, 48-51

Ohmae, K (1986) Becoming A Triad Power: The New Global Corporation, International Marketing Review, Vol. 3, No. 3, 7-20


Buckly, P. J (2014) Forty years of internalisation theory and the multinational enterprise, Multinational Business Review, 22(3), 227-45

Lundan, S. M (2010) What are Ownership Advantages? Multinational Business Review, 18(2)

Eden, L & L. Dai (2010) Rethinking the `O` in Dunning’s OLI/Eclectic Paradigm, Multinational Business Review, 18(2), 13-34

Dunning, J.H. & Lundan S.M (2008) Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy, 2nd edition. Edward Elgar

Letto -Gillies, G (2005) Dunning’s eclectic framework, in Transnational Corporations and International Production: Concepts, Theory & Impacts. Edward Elgar



Cavusgil, S. T., et al. (2020) Ch.8 ‘Understanding Emerging Markets’, in International Business: The New Realities (5th edition). Pearson

Konara, P., Haa, Y-J., McDonald, F., & Wei, Y (2015) The rise of Multinationals from Emerging Economies: Achieving a New Balance. Palgrave Macmillan

Rugman, A. M. & Collinson, S (2012) Ch.20 ‘Emerging Economies’, in International Business (5th edition), pp.637-668. Pearson

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (2011) Multipolarity: The New Global Economy. The World Bank, Washington D.C.

Wilson, D. & Stupnytska, A (2007) The N-11: More Than an Acronym. Goldman Sachs Global Economics Paper No. 153

Further reading on specific emerging countries and regions

Cui, , Meyer, K.E., & Hu, H.W (2015) What drives firms’ intent to seek strategic assets by foreign direct investment? A study of emerging economy firms Journal of World Business 49 (4): 488–501

Buckley, P. J., Elia, S. & Kafouros, M (2014) Acquisitions by emerging market multinationals: Implications for firm performance Journal of World Business 49 (4): 611–632

Buckley, P. J., & Hashai, N (2014) The role of technological catch up and domestic market growth in the genesis of emerging country-based multinationals Journal of World Business 43 (2): 423-437

Rugman, A. M. & Collinson, S (2012) Ch.21 ‘China’, in International Business (6th edition), pp.669-699. Pearson

Santaneglo, G., & Meyer, K. E (2011) Extending the Internationalization Process Model: Increases and Decreases of MNE Commitment in Emerging Economies Journal of International Business Studies 42: 894-909

Babarinde, O. A (2009) Africa is Open for Business: A Continent on the Move, Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol. 51(4), 319-328

Lipsher, L. E (2010) It was 60 years ago today! Reflections on change in China, Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol. 52(5), 431-8

Marcovitch, J (2008) The New Latin American Landscape, Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol. 50(3), 157-74



Dicken, P (2015) Ch.6 `The State Really Does Matter`, in Global Shift (7th edition). Sage

Cavusgil, S. T., et al. (2020) Ch.7 ‘Government Intervention and regional Economic Integration’ in International Business: The New Realities (5th edition). Pearson

Rodrik, D (2013) Who Needs the Nation-State? (The 2012 Roepke Lecture in Economic Geography), Economic Geography, Vol. 89, No. 1, 1-19.  

** Highly recommended **


Klein, M, C., & Pettis, M (2020) Trade Wars are Class Wars. How Rising Inequality Distorts the Global Economy and Threatens International Peace. Yale University Press

Torbn, I., & Soskice, D.W. (2019) Reinventing Capitalism Through a Turbulent Century. Princeton University Pres

Judg W.Q., Fainshmidt, S., & Brown, III (2014) Which model of capitalism best delivers both wealth and equality? Journal of International Business Studies 46 (7): 363–386

Witt, M. A. & Redding, G (2013) Asian business systems: institutional comparison, clusters and implications for varieties of capitalism and business systems theory, Socio-Economic Review, Vol. 11, No. 2, 265-300

Peck, A. & Zhang, J (2013) A variety of capitalism with Chinese characteristics? Journal of Economic Geography, Vol. 13, 357-96

Schneider, M. R. & Paunescu, M (2012) Changing varieties of capitalism and revealed comparative advantages from 1990 to 2005: a test of the Hall and Soskice claims, Socio-Economic Review, Vol. 10(4), 731-753

Jackson,G., & Deeg, R (2008) Comparing capitalisms: understanding institutional diversity and its implications for international business Journal of International Business Studies 39: 540-561

Bremmer, I (2011) Ch.3 ‘State Capitalism: What It Is and How It Happened’, in The End of The Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations? pp.43-69. Penguin Books

Hall, P. A. & Soskice, D (2001) Ch.1 ‘An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism’, in Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, pp.1-68 [available to download at:  http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~phall/VofCIntro.pdf]


Konwar, Z., Papageorgiadis, N., Ahammad, M.F., Tian, A., McDonald, F., & Wang, C. (2016) Dynamic Marketing Capabilities, Foreign Ownership Modes, Sub-national Locations and the Performance of Foreign Affiliates in Developing Economies International Marketing Review

Ahammad, M.F., Tarba, S.Y., Liu, Y., & Glaister, K.W (2015) Knowledge transfer and cross-border acquisition performance: The impact of cultural distance and employee retention. International Business Review 25(1): 66-75

Brouthers, K. D (2013) Institutional, cultural and transaction cost influences on entry mode choice and performance. Journal of International Business Studies, 44(1), 1–13. 

Canabal, A. & White, G. O (2008) Entry mode research: Past and future. International Business Review, 17(3), 267–284

Brouthers, K. D., & Hennart, J.-F (2007). Boundaries of the Firm: Insights from International Entry Mode Research. Journal of Management, 33(3), 395–425

TRANS-NATIONAL AND SUB-NATIONAL NETWORKS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY: GLOBAL PRODUCTION NETWORKS AND GEOGRAPHIC INDUSTRY CLUSTERS Understand and be able to confidently discuss aspects of the globalisation process and recognise its impact on the global economy and business environment.

Sturgeon, T., Van Biesebroeck, J., & Gereffi, G (2008). Value chains, networks and clusters: reframing the global automotive industry. Journal of Economic Geography, Vol.8, No.3, 297–321.

Nair, A., Ahlstrom, D. & Filer, L (2007) Localized advantage in a global economy: the case of Bangalore, Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol.49, No.5, 591–618

Gereffi, G (2006) Lecture 1: `An Overview of the Contemporary Global Labour Market`, in The New Offshoring of Jobs and Global Development. International Labour Organization (International Institute for Labour Studies), Geneva

Scott, A. J. (2006) The changing global geography of low-technology, labour-intensive manufacturing: clothing, footwear, furniture, World Development, Vol. 34, No. 9, 1517-36.

Bathelt, H., Malmberg, A., & Maskell, P (2004) Clusters and knowledge: local buzz, global pipelines and the process of knowledge creation. Progress in Human Geography, Vol.28, No.1, 31–56

Storper, M., Venables, A.J. & Buzz A.J (2004) face-to-face contact and the urban economy Journal of Economic Geography 4 (4): 351-370

Coe, N. M., Hess, M., Yeung, H. W., Dicken, P., & Henderson, J (2004) “Globalizing” regional development: a global production networks perspective. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Vol.29, No.4, 468–484

Henderson, J., Dicken, P., Hess, M., Coe, N., & Yeung, H. W.-C. (2002). Global production networks and the analysis of economic development. Review of International Political Economy, Vol.9, No.3, 436–464

Porter, M. E. (2000) Location, Competition, and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy, Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 14(1), 15-34.


On regional economic integration in general

Cavusgil, S. T., et al. (2020) Ch.7 ‘Government Intervention and Regional Economic Integration’, in International Business: The New Realities (5th edition). Pearson.

Wild, J. J & Wild, K. L (2011) Ch.8 ‘Regional Economic Integration’, in International Business: The Challenges of Globalisation (6th edition). FT Prentice Hall.

On the European Union

Mamadouh, V. & Wusten, H. (2012) Financial, Monetary and Governance Crisis: An Outlook On The Euro(Zone), Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Vol. 102(1), 111-18

Featherstone, K (2011) The Greek Sovereign Debt Crisis and EMU: A Failing State in a Skewed Regime, Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 49(2), 193-21

El-Agraa, A. M (2011) The European Union: Economics and Policies (9th edition). Cambridge University Press

Georgiou, C. (2010) The euro crisis and the future of European integration, International Socialism: A Quarterly Journal of Socialist Theory, Issue 128 [Available at:  http://www.isj.org.uk /] [An interesting and informative article on the Euro crisis, from a critical perspective]

Artis, M. & Nixon, F (2007) Economics of the European Union, Oxford University Press.

Sapir, A (2006) Globalization and the Reform of European Social Models, Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 44(2), 369-90

Johnson, D. & Turner, C (2006) European Business. Routledge Understand and be able to confidently discuss aspects of the globalisation process and recognise its impact on the global economy and business environment.

Edgar Sweeney, S (2005) Europe, the State and Globalisation. Longman

Jones, R (2001) Economics and Politics of the European Union. Edward

Kolodo, G.W. (2020) China and the Future of Globalisation: The Political Economy of China’s Rise. I.B. Tauris

Vogel, E.Z. (2019) Japan and China: Facing History. Harvard University Press

Guirdham, M (2009) Culture and Business in Asia. Palgrave Macmillan

Hutton, W (2007) China the Writing on the Wall: China and the West in the 21st Century. Little Brown.

Beeson, M. (2006) Regionalism and Globalisation in East Asia: Politics, Security and Economic Development. Palgrave Macmillan.

Williamson, P. (2004) Winning in Asia. Harvard University Press.

Seminar Programme


  • Introduction to the module and assessment briefing
  • Small group discussion activity: Brainstorming on the nature of the Global Business Environment using the LoNG PESTEL Framework

Supplementary seminar discussion questions

  1. Who are the different groups of ‘key actors’ in the global economy and business environment?
  2. What are the key ‘big picture’ trends and issues in today’s global business environment?
  3. What is FDI? How is FDI different from foreign portfolio investment?
  4. What is an MNE? What are the characteristics of MNEs?


*** Tutors to assign students to small groups of 4-6 students for seminar tasks ***

Seminar discussion questions on globalisation

  1. What do you understand the term ‘globalisation’ to mean? How can we define globalisation?
  2. What have been the main ‘drivers’ or ‘enablers’ of globalisation?
  3. How far has globalisation gone? How can we `measure` the extent of globalisation?
  4. What have been (are) the implications of globalisation for business? Does the answer depend on the type of firm and the nationality of the firm? Choose one global industry from those covered in Global Shift. First assess the extent to which the chosen industry can be characterised as: (a) ‘globalised’ or ‘regionalised’ (as per Rugman) Then, explore and analyse the underlying factors and forces behind the observed patterns


  1. Explain what is meant by the Triad and outline how and why the definition of the term has evolved over time (e.g. from Ohmae’s original ‘core Triad’ to today’s wider conception)?
  2. What kinds of indicators and measures of economic activity could be used to assess the extent of Triad dominance in a particular industry?
  3. What evidence is there for the existence of a global Triad? To what extent does the answer to this question depend on the indicators chosen and the industry being considered?
  4. To what extent has the emergence of the BRIC countries and other emerging economies undermined the relevance of the Triad concept? What sort of evidence could be used to answer this question?


Seminar presentation by Group 1 using the questions below.

  1. Why do firms engage in FDI?
  2. What is Dunning`s OLI framework and how can we use it to understand the ways in which firms internationalise?
  3. What is `internalisation`? How does it enable an MNC to access international markets?

Note to tutors

Please assign a ‘Next-11’ emerging economy to each student group and explain the required preparation for next week’s seminar. Depending on the number and ‘mix’ of students, assign 4 or 5 of the following countries: Mexico, Turkey, Nigeria, Egypt, Iran, Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia.


  • Focus: research task and group activity on Next-11 Emerging markets.
  • This seminar activity involves all students.
  • You must undertake preparatory research before coming to this class.

Required preparation: overview and rationale

For this seminar, all students are required to conduct some individual research (as outlined below) and bring some summary notes to the seminar. During the seminar you will be required to work in small groups to deliver a brief presentation, based on your research.

The rationale for this task is two-fold:

  1. To introduce you to some of the key emerging markets (beyond the BRIC countries) and highlight some of the key features of their national economies and business environments.
  2. To introduce you to some of the key online data sources that will be useful for the final group presentation and individual assignment tasks.

Briefing for preparatory research task on Next-11 emerging markets

Each student should have been assigned to one Next-11 emerging market by their seminar tutor.

Using online data sources, such as globalEDGE and Doing Business, you are required to research and compile a summary country profile of your assigned Next-11 emerging market as follows:

  • General country characteristics: key information about history, culture, demographics, political and legal system, etc.
  • Key economic attributes: recent economic performance, leading industries, trade position, openness to foreign investment, etc.
  • Opportunities and challenges for doing business in the country.

Your group should compile a ppt presentation for this seminar

Data Sources

globalEDGE ( http://globaledge.msu.edu/) is a very useful starting place for accessing statistical data on countries around the world. This wide-ranging site has links to a variety of data sources about countries` history, economy and political conditions. If you click on `global insights` then select a country from the drop-down menu under `insights by country’, this will take you to a page with a variety of key indicators for the chosen country (use the left hand menu to navigate) and links to external sites. You can also click on the `country comparator` and ‘country rankings’ tabs to directly compare the chosen country with other countries on a variety of economic indicators.

Doing Business ( http://www.doingbusiness.org/) is an annual report and data series produced by the World Bank and International Finance Corporation. The Doing Business project aims to provide objective measures of the business environment in 185 economies, with a focus on 10 areas of business regulation. The website provides data comparison tools, country rankings and individual country reports.

Supplementary seminar discussion questions on emerging market economies

  1. How can we define ‘emerging market economies’ and distinguish them from advanced/developed economies and developing/less developed economies?
  2. What forces or processes have led to the emergence of emerging market economies?
  3. What kinds of opportunities and threats do emerging markets present to established multinational firms from Western/Triad economies?
  1. How do emerging market multinationals (EMNEs) differ from more established Triad multinationals? And to what extent do EMNEs present a credible threat to Triad MNEs?
  2. To what extent is the term ‘emerging markets’ still relevant today


Informal presentation by Group 2 (based on the themes provided below). Although the seminar will be led by one student group, it is important that all students prepare by doing the suggested topic readings (see reading list).

Questions to be explored in student-led presentation by Group 2

  • Using examples from the extractive industries, outline a number of ways in which nation-states (through their various economic policies) shape the global pattern of production and trade? [See relevant industry chapter in Dicken (2015) and consult other sources]
  • What factors determine the relative ‘bargaining power’ between multinational corporations and nation-states in this industry? Present one or more examples to illustrate your arguments.

Questions for general seminar discussion

  1. What are the 4 roles of the nation-state in the global economy, according to Dicken?
  2. To what extent has national (economic) sovereignty been challenged or undermined by the globalisation process?
  3. To what extent, and in what ways, has national sovereignty been re-asserted since the global financial crisis of 2008? [See Rodrik (2013) on reading list]
  4. In what ways might the objectives of nation-states and multinational firms be in conflict?
  5. What factors influence the relative bargaining power of multinationals and nation-states? [see Dicken, Ch.6]


Questions for seminar discussion

  1. What are the main arguments of the ‘varieties of capitalism’ approach and on which main variables are countries classified into the different varieties?
  2. Compare/contrast the main characteristics of the varieties of capitalism found in the United States and Germany.
  3. What are said to be the key economic implications of this variation among different models? (e.g. in terms of the type of innovation or industrial specialisation in different countries)
  4. To what extent do the BRIC economies and other parts of emerging Asia fit within the established ‘varieties of capitalism’ framework? Highlight any areas of difference.
  5. How do the models of capitalism found in leading emerging economies – such as China - differ from those observed in the developed economies of the core Triad?
  6. What pressures for change have been exerted on the various national models of capitalism over the last two decades and how do these relate to globalisation? To what extent has there been a convergence between the different models?


Seminar presentation by Group 3 using the questions below:

  1. Outline the major motivations for undertaking FDI?
  2. Delineate the types of firms involved in FDI. Are there any types of firms which can internationalise only via FDI?
  3. What factors should management consider when deciding where in the world to establish a factory? A marketing headquarters? A regional headquarters?


Informal presentation by Group 4 (based on the questions below). Although the seminar will be led by one student group, it is important that all students prepare by doing the suggested topic readings (see reading list).

Questions to be explored in student-led presentation by Group 4

  • You are advised to consult the Chapter 14 in Dicken (2015) when preparing your presentation.
  • Explain some of the key features of the GPN or GVC structures that are typically observed in the textile and clothing industry.
  • Why do different countries perform different roles or functions within the textile and clothing global production network? Give some examples.
  • How have Western retailers and brand owners been able to exert so much influence over the geography of production in the clothing industry? And why is clothing (garment manufacturing) apparently one of the most ‘footloose’ global industries?

Questions for general seminar discussion

  • What is meant by the terms ‘global production network’ and ‘global value chain’?
  • Why has the GPN or GVC phenomenon only recently come to prominence in discussions of international trade?
  • What particular insights can be gleaned from adopting a GPN or GVC perspective on international business and international trade and investment issues? Understand and be able to confidently discuss aspects of the globalisation process and recognise its impact on the global economy and business environment.
  • What ‘forces’ (factors and processes) have encouraged the emergence of global production networks in certain global industries?


We will be going over the assignment questions in this seminar so please bring any research materials you have gathered for your assignment.

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