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Circulatory, Respiratory and Skeletal Examination

Access to HE Diploma Title

Nursing and Midwifery

Unit Code(s)

Unit Title

Level

Credit Value

QU006413

Human Anatomy and Physiology

3

6

ID

20005867

 

Group

6

 

           

Assignment Title

Circulatory, Respiratory and Skeletal Examination (1 of 2)

Tasks

You have 1.5 hours to complete this open book examination. You are not permitted to share resources with your peers; therefore, you must have your own text book or hand-written notes. You will be given a separate answer sheet.

Please ensure you attempt ALL questions. This means you must be conscious of timing. Failure to attempt all questions is viewed as a ‘non-submission’ of the assessment criteria. Hand in your notes with this exam booklet. Extra paper is available.  

  1. In table form, compare red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma (1.1)
  2. Analyse the anatomy of the heart. You must refer to the chambers, the blood vessels and the tissue of the heart walls (1.2)
  3. In table form, compare the anatomy of arteries, capillaries and veins (1.3)
  4. Explain the circuit of blood around the body - referring to major blood vessels (1.4)
  5. Differentiate, in list form, between the bones in the axial and the bones in the appendicular skeletons (3.1)
  6. Describe the nature of the 6 types of synovial joint, giving an example of their position in the body and describing their range of movement, recognising the limitations of each (3.2 and 3.3)
  7. Describe the structures involved in the passageway of air from the nose to the alveoli (5.1)
  8. Summarise the changes in volume and pressure during inhalation and exhalation (5.2)
  9. Identify how the surface of the alveoli is adapted for gas exchange (5.3)

 

Learner Declaration:  I declare that all the work submitted for this unit is my own, and that where I have drawn on the work of others, I have referenced this in accordance with the College Policy.

 

Please attach the entire assignment brief to work submitted for assessment.  Your work cannot be assessed unless you have signed and submitted this form. Electronic signature will suffice.

   

Access to HE Diploma Title

Nursing and Midwifery

Assignment Title

Circulatory, Respiratory and Skeletal Examination (1 of 2)

Assessment Criteria

1.1

Compare the main components of Blood

1.2

Analyse and determine the basic anatomy of the heart

1.3

Explain the anatomy of arteries, veins and capillaries

1.4

Explain the circulatory system with reference to the main blood vessels

3.1

Identify and analyse the main regions of the skeleton- axial and appendicular ribcage, girdles and limbs (only a few common bone names should be introduced)

3.2

Describe, differentiate and analyse the nature of position of various joints

3.3

Discuss and evaluate the movement brought about at joints e.g. forearm.

5.1

Describe the gross and microscopic structure of the respiratory system

5.2

Describe breathing in terms of changes in volume and pressure

5.3

Identify the adaptations of the gas exchange surface

Grade Descriptors –
This assignment is graded using elements from the grade descriptors below

If you achieve all assessment criteria listed above at Level 3, you will be awarded a Pass. To gain a Merit or Distinction, your work must match the performance described in the following grade descriptors.

Grade Descriptor

To achieve a Merit:

To achieve a Distinction:

GD2

Application of Knowledge

To achieve a Merit: The learner’s work or performance:

 

a)     Makes use of relevant facts with either

b)    Breadth or depth that goes beyond the minimum required to Pass and

c)     Very good levels of accuracy

To achieve GD2 at a Merit your exam your answers need to be generally appropriate to the question and generally focused on the assessment criteria.

To achieve a Distinction: The learner’s work or performance:

 

a)     Makes use of relevant facts with both

b)    Breadth and depth and

c)     Excellent levels of accuracy

 

To achieve GD2 at a Distinction your exam answers need to be consistently appropriate to the question and consistently focused on the assessment criteria.

GD7 Quality

To achieve a Merit: The learner’s work or performance:

a)     Is structured in a way that is generally logical and fluent

To achieve GD7 at a Merit your answers need be generally logical and fluent with only occasional errors with spelling, punctuation and grammar.

 

To achieve a Distinction: The learner’s work or performance:

a)     Is structured in a way that is consistently logical and fluent

To achieve GD7 at a Distinction your answers need to be consistently logical and fluent with minimal errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar.

         

 Question 1. In table form, compare the main components of blood; red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma (1.1)

Name of Component

Key Structural Features

Function/s

 

Red Blood

Cells

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • They contain haemoglobin which is a red protein that combines with oxygen
  • They have no nucleus so they can contain more haemoglobin
  • Their flexibility allows them to fit through narrow blood vessels
  • They are flattened disc shape and it helps for oxygen absorption
  • Carry oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues

 

  • Take carbon dioxide away from the tissues and bring it back to the lungs

 

  • It regulate the PH  of body fluid

 

White Blood Cells

 

 

  • Leukocyte or white corpuscle They have a nucleus
  • Its blueish and red
  • Its a large and flexible cell
  • immune response they identify and target pathogens, such as invading bacteria, viruses and other foreign organism
  • Protects body from infections

 

Platelets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Platelets are irregularly shaped
  • They don’t have a nucleus
  • Are produced by megakaryocytes
  • They do not contain nuclear DNA 
  • Secrete procoagulant to promote blood clotting
  • Form temporary platelet plug to stop bleeding
  • Dissolve blood clots when they are no longer needed
  • Secrete vasoconstrictors which constrict blood vessels, causing vascular spasms in broken blood vessels
 

 

Plasma

 

 

 

  • Plasma is the watery, liquid component of the blood
  • It also contains proteins, electrolytes, glucose,  nutrient gases and waste products.
  • Is conducted through arteries and veins.
  • It’s a yellow liquid

 

  • Transport substances through the blood such as salts, enzymes, nutrients, hormones and proteins to the parts of the body that need it
  • Helps blood to clot
       

Question 2. Analyse the anatomy of the heart. You must make reference to the chambers, the blood vessels and the tissue of the heart walls (1.2)

Label the heart structures then write you analyse of the structure and function of the chambers, blood vessels and tissues:

Structures

function

Pulmonary artery

 

Vena cava

 

right atrium

 

Tricuspid valve

 

Right ventricle

 

aorta

 

Pulmonary vein

 

Left atrium

 

Left ventricle

 

Mitral valve

 

 

 

     

Write an account to explain how the structure of the chambers, valves and blood vessels help the heart to carry out its function. You must make sure that you include in your answer how the differences in the structures assist the function of the heart.

Question 3. In table form, compare the anatomy of arteries, capillaries and veins (1.3)

 

Structural Features

Functions

 

Arteries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Veins

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capillaries

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 4. Explain the circuit of blood around the body - making reference to major blood vessels (1.4) (discuss both circuits in detail and identify substances transported)

Question 5. Differentiate, in list form, between the bones in the axial and the bones in the appendicular skeletons (3.1)

Question 6. Describe the nature of the 6 types of synovial joint, giving an example of their position in the body and describing their range of movement, recognising the limitations of each (3.2 and 3.3)

Question 7. Describe the structures of the respiratory system involved in the passageway of air from the nose to the alveoli (5.1)

Question 8. Summarise the changes in volume and pressure during inhalation and exhalation (5.2)

Question 9. Identify how the surface of the alveoli are adapted for effective gas exchange (5.3)

Draw a diagram of an alveolus surrounded by capillaries to indicate with the help of arrows the direction of movement of gases during the process of gas exchange. Then explain how the adaptations make gas exchange effective.


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